There are three types of transplants:
In Autologous Transplants, patients receive their own stem cells. Autologous transplant is done for disease like Multiple Myeloma, relapsed Lymphoma, relapsed Hodgkin’s Disease and Autoimmune Diseases. Autologous SCT carries lower risk of complications.
In Allogeneic Transplants stem cells are donated by siblings or stem cells are procured from other sources like matched unrelated donor (MUD) or umbilical cord blood. Allogeneic SCT is done for diseases like Leukemia, Aplastic Anemia. For Allogeneic SCT, patient needs HLA matched sibling. Myeloablative allogeneic transplants are usually restricted to young and fully fit individuals. Non ablative allogeneic transplants/mini transplants can be done for patients who cannot undergo ablative transplants. This makes allogeneic SCT an option for older and infirm patients, who otherwise cannot undergo ablative transplants. Umbilical cord transplant is performed for patients who do not have matched siblings for Allogeneic transplants.
In Syngeneic Transplants, patients receive stem cells from their identical twin. These transplants are rare.