International Oncology Centres offer you comprehensive and cutting edge diagnostic facilities. Early detection of cancer can save lives.
There is a wide array of methods used to diagnose cancer. These tests are best conducted by an expert at our cancer centers. After the diagnosis, a second opinion from an expert is strongly recommended. Some types of cancer, particularly lymphomas, can be hard to classify. Accurate identification of cancer allows our oncologists to choose the most effective treatment for you. The most common diagnostic methods include:
Diagnostic surgery (Biopsy)
In biopsy, the surgeon removes a part or the entire tumor for histo-pathological examination to determine whether the growth is cancerous or not. Various biopsies often done are-
- Fine Needle Aspiration - A needle is inserted into the tumor and material is drawn out for microscopic examination
- Incisional or Excisional Biopsy - The surgeon removes a small portion of a large tumor (incisional) or the entire tumor itself (excisional) for further histo-pathological examination. This procedure is normally done under anesthesia.
During this procedure the patient is placed under brief short anaesthesia and a small fiberoptic flexible tube with camera on its tip is passed down into body cavities and organs, allowing the physician to view the suspicious area. There are many types of scopes, each designed to view particular areas of the body. For example, a colonoscope is used to detect growths inside the colon, and a laparoscope is used to examine the abdominal cavity.
Several techniques are used to produce an internal picture of the body and its structures. Following are the various imaging methods:
- PET CT scan
The PET CT has revolutionized various fields of medical diagnosis through precise anatomic localization and functional imaging. International Oncology recently launched the GEMINI GXL from Philips, the world's first and only OPEN PET CT with 32 Slice CT scan. The PET (Positron Emission Tomography) CT is considered the gold standard in cancer detection and is a functional imaging modality used predominantly to diagnose conditions by monitoring glucose metabolism at the cellular level
- X Rays
It is the most commonly used procedure by doctors to understand the internal structure of the body. This method helps the specialists in identifying any abnormalities in the internal structure that may indicate the presence of cancer.
- CAT scan (Computerized Axial Tomography)
In this diagnostic method radiographic beams are used to create detailed pictures of the internal body with the help of a specialized X-ray machine. It is more precise than a standard X-ray, and provides a clearer image.
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
This procedure involves a powerful magnetic field to create detailed images of the internal body including soft tissues, large blood vessels and major organs. Thus any abnormality can easily be identified with this procedure. MRI is a more accurate process but it requires the patient to remain still during the procedure.
This method uses high-frequency sound waves to determine if a suspicious lump is solid or fluid. These sound waves are transmitted into the body and converted into a computerized image.
- Blood Tests
Some of the tumors release substances called tumor markers in the blood which can be detected with the help of blood tests. For example, blood test for prostate cancer determines the amount of prostate specific antigen (PSA).